A Treatise on Calico Printing, A Retrospect, or abstracted View of the Subject just discussed, with occasional Observations, and a concise Corrollary educed from the whole.

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.


(1) This consideration of principles (attempted to be the reigning one throughout the work) may be applied to mental operations, or works of fancy; and is so exhibited in the sectiost of pattern drawing where genius is spoken of, as that principle or vivifying spark (there so termed) which is the spring of excellence in works of invention.

By the term principles (so often mentioned) it is concluded is understood, not those subtle points that refined theorists contest; much less those more remote ones, enveloped almost in metaphysical obscurity. But those only, as observed in note i8 to copper-work, from which we can form reasonable conjectures, as the springs or commencements of physical operations, and which are universally allowed te be valid, and in certain degrees immutable.

(2) Alkaline salts are changed into absorbent earths by frequent solutions and evaporations. — See the compendium of chemistry.

(3) Hot water, every one knows, will dislodge oil or grease, and, as in this case, alkalies and absorbent earths; but it is not sufficient, unless what dislodges them retains them, by combining with them.

(4) Mineral acids act similarly to alkalies in re moving; the brown or unctuous substance.

(5) As the writer affects to bring in cases something in point, he here mentions a circumstance of a person being employed to repair a copper-plate press, having been much used to such work; he accordingly took it to-pieces, as the best way towards making (as his phrase was) a good job of it; and after working at it three or four weeks, it was deemed completely in order by a few trials that were made; but that, it soon appeared, was far from being the case, for though he knew what parts should be together, he did not seem, to have an idea of tracing their relative connections, as proceeding from the first movement; and thus over-looked the firm situation the cylinders should revolve in, towards performing with the necessary pressure: for the gudgeon, or pivot-hole, that the pivot or spindle at one end of the upper cylinder turned in, was so insecurely placed, that in the passing of the plate, it was lifted up a third of an inch, and the consequence was always evident in the impression, and when the cause was discovered, it was by mere accident.

It would be like affectation to enter here into a copious mechanical disquisition of the matter, but it may be said the considerations in this case, should have been, l. what the effect required, 2. what the power or velocity to procure that effect, 3. what the resistance to that power, and 4, what the method to obtain it and likewise to secure it? and then to have proceeded accordingly.

It is however ventured to observe, that in copper-plate printing presses, the situation of the winch does not seem to be properly attended to in working quarter or ½ quarter plates; for, as it is in the pinch that the force is most requisite, the winch (which mechanically speaking is a lever of the second kind) should be so fixed, as to be at that time either in the highest or lowest part of the circle which it describes; or, if but one person acts, in that point from which he pulls, as in any other the persons, who turn it, cannot use their strength to the most advantage, though with the assistance of the flier; which, by the way, as an assistant, is contended among mechanics wherein it is so; in fact, for reasons which will not here be entered into, there should be a winch at each side of the press, but then for whole plate printing, they should not stand one up and the other down, as for quater, or half quarter plate work, but rather thus,

(6) Some at this time lay very little stress on the utility of dunging,

A gross error is prevalent among Printers, respecting the introduction of dungings which is, that a Cow having got among goods that were laid to whiten, where her ordure fell they were observed to be the whitest; but the use of dung was common long ago, in many cases, on the Continent; some however think it might be spared from Callico-Printing, though some imagine it rouses the colour, but what effect it has is supposed to proceed from its volatile alkaline quality (as said already). Dogs excrement is used in the Levant for brightening the lac used in dyeing goats skins; and it is common here in the dyeing of thread to use sheeps dung.

Now, according to the intention of this Retrospect, it would here be asked, what is the quality of dung? which when answered, we may then judge of the propriety of using it; as an answer, ir may be said, it is a vegetable putrefaction; of course it is alkaline, and should not be indiscreetly used. — See the section of Dunging.

In agriculture, the salts in it are supposed to open the roots of vegetables, and that thereby, they are more disposed to receive that humidity from the earth necessary for their nourishment, and fruitfulness.

The above suggestions may be applied to branning; and if the purpose for which bran is used, be investigated, other articles would be found as useful, which are far more œconomical: but for cleansing, some acidity is required, and there, perhaps, the writer has forced a meaning in deeming it souring.

(7) Dr. Home says, that among Bleachers by prosession, the pieces are first soaked in warm water; but this is not done now in Lancashire. He likewise says, in souring, the foulness in the cloth so much attracts the acid particles, that the water, is tasteless; this however is not the case, in souring among printers. — See however note 12 to copperwork, and the article maddering.

(8) The writer now knows a Chymist of repute, who says, he has discovered a mode cheaper and more efficacious than any yet used; and the same with iron liquor; which will perhaps shortly be publickly announced.

(9) The case was a pattern of Messrs Greaves' Newton and Co's being closely imitated by Watson and Co. the fact not being contended, but only a misconception of the meaning of the act, Lord Kenyon in his charge, severely reprobated the practice of such piracies, as bidding defiance to law, and the protection Parliament had granted to genius and industry; and plainly intimated, that if such a case came again before him, of an imitation being for near the original, as to pass for it, very little indulgence indeed might be expected. — See notes 13 and 15.

Of the performances in the country, on the principle of expedition, none have more surprized Printers about town, than those of cutting and finishing various patterns; but respecting the mode of doing it, no more, for sufficient reasons, will be said, than that it has been frequently done to answer a very illaudable purpose, and generally with the power only of printing a piece or two, as the whole was often cut over again, to execute a course of work. — See note 32 to copper-work.

An instance has been lately given of similar expedition in copper-plate work, in the imitation of a celebrated and truly excellent dark ground pattern, (see further on) the imitation being executed in a tenth of the time the original took: the execution, however, it must be owned, is neither to the credit of the drawing, nor the engraving, whatever engraving there may be in it; and on the principle just reprobated; of still less to the publisher of it; but, notwithstanding these practices, it is plain the infatuation of setting up printing grounds in the country on a monopolizing or underselling plan, has, like other furors, had its paroxysm (see note 13) and the fallacy of the prediction, that the business would be nearly all done in the country, is now evident enough: as land, labour and provisions are not to be had on such easy terms as formerly; exclusive of the little credit of country paper currency, since the failure of Mosney, and the many subsequent ones, and the market being overstocked by the quantity of wretched work, latterly disembogued by that house as well us by several others.

(10) Innovations, particularly on a mechanical principle, are spreading pretty widely in the country; and machines of various constructions are increasing about town; and perhaps many town Printers will hardly credit that engraved cylinders perform as expeditiously as the common pin ones, that a machine for block printing was invented and used some time, with which any one could print as easily as turn a winch, (the specification for a patent was even made out) and that in machine printing, four cylinders may be used at once in different colours.

The writer can speak of this with confidence, having the advantage of knowing what has been done, and what has been farther attempted; and was absolutely in a concern where an almost general course of printing by machines only, was to have been adopted, a system being formed for that purpose; but certain considerations, among which the idea of such modes being ultimately injurious, from enabling the proprietors to underwork others, operating not a little with him, set the plan aside.

Cut this is a neither safe nor proper to speak of, at least for the present; unless it may be permitted to say, (as having some relation with it, and being among the causes) that a spirit of combination has unfortunately prevailed, opposition will inevitably follow, and few ultimately will have occasion to rejoice; for when the necessary distinction between principals and subordinates is destroyed, who will willingly enter into a business liable to be thus cramped, or remain in it unless under very particular considerations, without seeking the means of executing work with less manual assistance? and that such means are to be obtained, the writer, from his own knowledge can say, is, under certain circumstances, to be performed beyond what many imagine, or will perhaps believe; besides, without affecting a prophetic spirit, let it be considered, that in the mutation of stile or fashion, callico printing has to fear a decline, or at least a suspension; and then the spirit of combination must evaporate; even at this very, time (1790) something may be apprehended from the countenance given by Royalty (and Vice-Royalty) to a manufacture, that for some years has been little encouraged.

It is very far from affectation or opposition, that these matters are freely treated; for it is to be feared that those who boast of having carried their point, (Which by the bye, a favourable coincidence of circumstances forwarded perhaps more than wisdom or fagacity) are too much minded by it, to see the certain consequences, that sooner or later must follow*, as to their plea on a legal score, it would have little countenance in a court of justice, if we may judge by the seventy with which several late combinations have been treated, the letter of the law itself being directly pointed to inflictions of that nature, without opening for escape or evasion; and why the law is so pointed, is on the principle that combinations obstruct trade: and in this case, what master Printer can venture to engage patterns, when he doubts (which he may now) whether he may be allowed men to work them, or men to even work at all; thus, if the regular channel of business is impeded, stupidity, itself must see the certain consequences; as to the restraint about apprentices, it would be proper enough if every apprentice proved to be a tolerable workman, but that is not the case with one in ten; of course, a proper succession of hands is prevented; but, if the association had been winked at, or if certain exertions for moderating this refractory spirit, and procuring an equilibrium of interests between master and man, had been aided, an extremity of proceedings (which will undoubtedly be the case) would have been prevented; however, at any rate, and for reasons which, those who look only as far as a Saturday-night,** cannot see or, will allow, power, in thie instance, should be in the hands of the Principal.

* When subordinates or lower classes acquire power in any shape, it is rarely used with temperance: and in this case, it would not ke wonderful, if the Congress, as usually called, hindered certain disapproved masters from having any men at all; or perhaps some of them might he for prescribing what kind of work they chuse to prints as well as they have often condemned certain prints; these suggestions are only intimated to the intemperate, as these intelligent men that are among them, or those that through necessity closed with the scheme, do not need them; and many, it is well known, find it very heavy to contribute to the fund; which, by report, can hardly answer the demands on it.

** Though some may not be pleased at mentioning it, yet great wages is an evil to those who know no use of money, but to get rid of it at that period.

At the same time let Principals be reminded, as a counter charge, that compacts between them respecting journeymen have been broken*; and were any to be made, and confirmed and fanctioned by law, various causes will still tend to break them: for when men are wanted they must be had; but a junction of interests in such a case is hard to be formed. — See something relative to this in the essay respecting masters and men.

* In a late trial (July 1790, at Guildhall) 500£. damages were given, for one Manufacturer inticing men away from another: heavy damages being directed by Lord Kenyan to be laid.

Something on a combinatory principle, has been in agitation among another class, but of which no more will be said, than that the writer laments any proposals should ever be made, to sell works of genius or, fancy at so much per inch.*

* A Plan of Mr. Lukey's (included in the general one) to excite emulation among Designers, merited consideration; but Master Printers and Drapers must join for that purpose before it can be effevted; and being for their mutual credit and interest, it mere well if they would. It however can never be too late to adopt something of the kind.

(11) It is laid this place was the means of giving bread to near 20,000 persons; cloth in whirffering has occupied ground; 12 miles in length near 300 tables hare been employed, and near 40 coppers at work at one time; 6 or 700 cylinders have been cut or pinned; common prints, &c. innumerable; and it is well known, one man, at the beginning, made a decent fortune by the cutting of them; but, as observed above, the price of labour was latterly reduced as much as possible: by converting (as done at other places) herds of Lancashire boors into drawers, cutters, printers, machine-worker &c. and the work was latterly proportionabiy execrable.

Of the failure it may be said, who in times past would have believed, or who in times to come will, that a connection reputedly worth above 150,600!. at its commencement, should in a few years crumble under the deficiency of near a million and a half; and that among; those involved in the accommodation labyrinth, who fell in consequence (exclusive of Gibson and Johnson) some were for 10 or 20,000l who, comparatively speaking, possessed little indeed? saying nothing of those who lingered some time, or those who were more or less shaken, at may be shaking at this moment.

It must however be observed, that in trying to reinstate the firm, it was endeavoured to prove ihat if it were supported till affairs could be arranged, there would be a balance in hand of 60,000l. but the attempt was in vain; the answer in general being, in effect, that such egregious folly and extreme madness had little title either to succour for the present, or confidence for the future.

As to the manoeuverings to raise supplies, they were carried to such enormous and unprecedented heighths, branched out into such complicated mazes and so finely spun, as hitherto to have baffled the powers of a Thurlowe or Kenyon to unravel*, but perhaps it was thought the magnitude of the concern was so great, its connections so wide and important, the resources so various, and the bank so expedient, that it would be upheld in defiance of common contingences; and probably the blow waff at least, not so soon expected.

But whether or not that was the case, many must smartingly remember the immediate effect of the shock was an awful gloom, diffusing itself as if credit were at its last gasp; or, as if that species of honour on which the very existence of Trade, Manufactures, and Commerce depends, had approached its dissolution; Manufacturers and Traders of various descriptions, crouding, to town, tremblingly anxious to know their fate; the miasma expanding so widely that few in any trading connection knew on what ground they stood. The consequences however must transmit a warning to future adventurers, how they precipitately adopt ill-digested plans, pursue immethodical operations, or execute desperate resolutions, especially if on a

* At the writing of this, the principle of their fictitious notes was under the consideration of the twelve Judges.

monopolizing and underselling principle, or, as if determined either to be the greatest gainers, or greatest bankrupts; but in short, of the whole it may be suggested in a few words, without distortion or aggravation, and a lamentable remembrancer it is to hundreds, that its commencement was rash, its prosecution desperate, and its termination***!!!

(12) Being returned a Member of Parliament. See a Pamphlet ascribed to him on the national debt. (Something similar was published a few, years ago under the title of "The national debt "no national grievance."

In the political mania existing among Manufacturers, if Mosney had stood, it is probable the competition between it and Bury would have extended to this object; for as it was, the Principals seemed latterly to have lost fight of Callico Printing, among their various speculative practices; indeed one of them (Smith) generally had political business enough on his hands; (his interference respecting the Callico-Printers' bill, is as well remembered, as his argumentative powers were acknowledged) but with what propriety Printers, Manufacturers and Tradesmen in various and extensive dealings and connections, plunge into the abyss of politics, beyond what concerns their immediate vocations, is not attempted here to decide; as it may be partly gathered from the rebuff Lord Thurlowe gave Jonah Wedgwood, in saying, whatever he might be as a Potter, he was an indifferent politician.

Of the pamphlet above alluded to, it may be observed, that most men in business, in what they write, naturally have an eye to their immediate vocations and interests: thus Mr. P — e dwells upon the increase of manufacture, but passes over those; practices that, however they overload the market, lessen the value of commodities, and is silent about that respectability which keeps up the spirit of any prosession, or that is a proper inducement for genius to exert itself; for of the vast quantities he himself has thrown into the market, a great part is well known to have cost him little on the score of design and execution, the sale at the same time being undoubted.*

* What a triumph it is, that notwithstanding this, there are Printers still gaining by a respectable line, and though their work sells high

And the writer cannot but lament, that while the Minister in the late display of the prosperous state of the nation, on opening the Budget for 1790, waa attributing it, to the increase of manufactures, and; the consumption of articles, he was silent on the probability of some of the manufactories going to decay at the same time, as he only regulated his decisions by the state of the excise and customs; thus, to come home to the subject; he can only estimate the prosperiry of the Callico-printing business by the entries which in this case is the same, whether work sells at 10d. per yard, or 10s. (is the same kind of cloth is used) but it is evident while this has been encreasing, Printers have been ruining themselves, by aiming at quantity, rather than quality, and lowering the market to get off that quantity. Here the case of Lively and Co. offers itself, for, while they were deluging the home and foreign markets, they were rapidly declining, in credit at least; and undoubtedly many 1000 yards that paid duty years back, are not disposed of yet: therefore the quantity they did,as appearing in the Excise books, was no proof of prosperity, but quite the contrary. - See note in General reflections about the Minister's knowledge of the minutiæ of trade.

And, here it is repeated, is the oversight in the Pamphlet, in no notice being taken of that respectability which ought to be preserved in any business, that; by proper means the market be kept open, and that one Manufacturer should not, by illaudable practices, render his prosession, and what he produces, of such little value, that at last it is neither beneficial nor creditable in any respect whatever.

Of the point chiefly dwelt on in the above-mentioned pamphlet, it may be just remarked, that national credit, like that of tradesmen, can only reach a certain height without breaking; and high as England is now in political health, or firm in constitution, who can say how long file may remain so, or that even the means employed to keep her so, may not defeat the intent, or that another Gibbons, some centuries hence, may not attempt to account for the decline of the British Empire? as every century produces great political and commercial Revolutions; and the present appears remarkably pregnant.

(13) As there always were, and always will be, men who bid defiance to legal obligations, as well as mere moral ones, those piratical practices, un warrantable in intention, disgraceful in execution, and destructive in their tendency, will probably never be stopped; and the check they have received, (see note 9) is far from remedying the evil, for an elaborate pattern of the same Parties was soon after imitated. — See note 14, and the General Reflections, &c.

Respecting monopolizing, and underselling by means of cramming the market with low priced work, it must inevitably, in the course of things, help to bring Callico Printing into disrepute; and, as it has been said, if it could be supposed for a moment, (see the end of colour-making) a chemical course were universally adopted, printing would soon loose its repute; so here it may be said, without that being the case, if what is called fast-work be brought into such a disreputable stile, similar consequences must happen; and if three or so houses about town, which in regard to design, execution, and an adequate price, keep up its respectibility, were to decline the business, the time would not be far off; but such an idea is unpleasing, and it is therefore waved.

Perhaps it is fortunate the original plan of the Linen Hall imtnded to have been opened on the Continent, Apr 1788, haa not been pursued; for certainly it would have caused an opening for large deposits of wretched work; but of that matter, what the writer can say about it will be particularly reserved for another occasion.*

* It need hardly be said, that now, Public Sales arep erverted to partial instead of general accommodations, hence that great scheme would have missed its proper ends.

Having spoken of cheapness of labour, &c. in the country, it is here suggested, that what has been done, and perhaps is now doing there, cannot be so done about town; for at the great country houses the subordinates have been used to look up to the principals as a superior kind of beings; and were therefore held as much as possible in a state of mental subjection, (perhaps, the school at Bury is an exception; though who can judge the founder's views) but subordinates about town have higher ideas; and it is said here to a, certainty, how disappointed principals used to such implicit obedience, and, procuring on almost what terms they, pleaded, the extremity of service at a nod, have found themselves in attempting the same about town; this however is probably gone by, for is fact, that at this time (1790) the first houses in the country begin to find, that in the intoxication of temporary gain, they overshot prudential caution, having nurtured what now proves rebellious; and would willingly compromise with tow Printers for the suppression: and likewise finding they have brought the marketable price so low, as to destroy the balance between that and: the price of labour, would gladly join in reducing it, and fixing it by law: (tho' that always renders workmen doubly rancorous against Principals) but the evil is of very natural growth, and the folly or impolicy is now seen: and felt, of putting at one time and another; 50 or 100 rude country hinds to printing, cutting, copperwork, &c. as they now begin to be of consequence, considering themselves as something more than machines, and pretend to dictate about price, time, apprentices, cylinders, &c. for in compliance with their demands one of the first Printers has: put down one third of his machines, and submitted: to other injunctions; and it seems as if apprentices had caught the influenza, for two grounds have advertised for about 30 each; that have absconded, and two others for near 20 each (see the Manchester papers for June and July 1790*) and it is not quite irrevalent to say the minister is not likely now** to be threatened with their being transplanted along, with the business to another place. — See General Reflections, and note 19 to the same.

* A threatening Letter was first to Rees and Kershar, demanding the suppresson of Machines. See the same papers.

** See P-le's examination by the Lords and Commons.

In fact, town Printers have partly to blame themselves; having first supplied country, ones, by selling them their old prints; and old Mr. Peele has often said, the sending. of goods into the country to be whitstered, forwarded the establishment of Printing Grounds.

**** This being the case, the capacities of lads put to the printing table should be better considered than they are; and were it done, the dulness of journeymen would not be so proverbial as it is. Infact, every thing depends on it, for unless the colour is properly imbibed by the cloth, (as said already) the Drawer, Cutter, and Colour-maker, have laboured to little purpose; and the Copperman cannot possibly remove nor cover the evil.

(14) The numbers who have not succeeded, particularly in the country, are strong proofs of this; even at Mosney, not one of the Principals could be supposed nearly competent, according to what is frequently advanced in this work; but to look round and see men, and of some understanding, rushing into a business absolutely requiring a junction of mechanical, chenvcal and philosophical knowledge; exclusive of the common concerns of all businesses, leaves little room to wonder how soon they get contused in every sense of the word, and that what they produce is disgraceful, and of course unprofitable.

***** See note 16 to Copper-work, and about the scald, at the end of Maddering.

(15) If it be not too ludicrous, it may be here said, though anxiety be not entered in the Journal or Ledger, yet much may very often be placed to its account.

The anxiety here alluded to, is not so much that which arises from the causes hinted at, in note 51 to Colour-making, or those that are in separable from business, so much as that resulting from mistakes in operations. To prescribe equanimity in such cases is useless; the remedy must be a preveritative; but, nevertheless, though a man is not to be reasoned with in a perturbed state, something may be advanced at other times, which if imprinted on the mind, may prevent or lessen that mental ebullition. Of which see the Essay on the relative duties of Masters and Men to each Other.
In the close of the section on copperwork, it is observed, and necessarily here repeated, that all operative effects, however complex they may appear in process, are to be traced to certain simple or elementary sources, depending on principles that give energy to the whole of the operations; and the closer these principles are attended to, or investigated, operations are to be proportionally simplified, and more easily and with more certainty carried into (1) effect; thus as illustrating the above position, in considering the processes treated of in the two preceding sections, they may be comprized in four parts, which here, similar to the elements of any art of science, are the points from which the subsequent operations spring, or to which they may all be referred.

First, Cleansing, or so preparing the cloth, that the astringent and colouring atoms are not prevented from entering.
Secondly, Expanding the pores whem cleansed, so that these particles find a ready admission.

Thirdly, Cementing fixing or binding them when entered into the pores when cleansed and expanded.

Fourthly, Securing or closing them in the cloth, when thus cemented; so that no future natural nor artificial operation canfairly remove them.

Now, in order to enforce a consideration of these principles, and to simplify and bring together the operations treated of, it is necessary to ask in general terms, what are the means to procure those effects, and wherein and how far lies the efficacy of those means? or to speak still closer to the, what are the substances necessary to be removed or applied, according to the quality of the cloth, and what are the articles and processes necessary tobe used for that purpose?

In the first place, the substance to be removed being allowed to be of an unctuous quality (whether naturally so or as applied to the threads previous to weaving, see note 12 to copper-work) it can only be removed by applying another substance that will attract and mix with it, in preference to whatever else it may be offered to; and as alkalies when joined to certain unctuous matters, are known to form a soap, they are therefore here applied, and a kind of soap being consequently formed, the hot water loosens it, mixes with it, and easily removes it; but as the salt as the alkali chiefly acts in this case, the earth is supposed to be left in the pores (2) which the water not being deemed able to remove commodiously and sufficiently, recourse is generally had to souring; as acids more readily effect it (3) the absorbent earths attracting the acid particles from the liquor in which they are suspended, forming a neutral salt, easily dissolved in water, and of course easily washed out (4) and the whitening is facilitated from the absorbent earths being thus thus neutralized.

These operations therefore are deemed needful, to cleanse the cloth, which, is only effectually performed, when its pores are sufficiently clear to receive the saline or astringent atoms, that are to attract the colouring ones. — See note 29 in copper work.

The above, it must be plain, only respects cleansing; the other parts, including the operation of printing, fixing, the colour, &c. being dwelt on in other places, the reader is therefore referred to them; but in view of enforcing the idea of considering operations as proceeding from a certain point, it may be asked, how are those various colours and shades produced? the answer is, by the agency of certain saline substances, (see a few pages back) such as allum, saccharum saturni, &c. which after their application, form an union with certain colouring particles, as of madder, weld, &c. assisted by various and successive operations; and which if looked into will be found proceeding from that point into certain direct or lateral connections, that otherwise would seem confused and in many cases supefluous.

All the circumstances included in this consideration, cannot possibly be specified, but was every person, concerned in these or indeed any other operations, to enquire from what points they originate, how they branch out, and to what they lead, it would by degrees form an habitual desire of acquiring knowledge, which when only partially acquired the summit is the easier to be attained. (5)

Concerning ashing, souring, &c. or more commonly speaking, the preparation, it is much simplified to what it formerly was; (6) and of late years, the processes among prosessed bleachers, have been so altered or retrenched, that in respect to practice two elaborate and judicious writers, Dr. Home and Mr. Curry, are growing obsolete; (7) to which the great improvements lately made in the cotton manufacture, and that of British callicoes, have undoubtedly contributed, and even at this time (1790) bleaching is undergoing a considerable improvement. (8)

The above causes a suggestion, that though the metropolis ever must be the center of taste and fashion, and though (turning to the of this treatise) some Printers about town hare had sufficient reason to complain of certain practices of many in the country, but which by a late legal process it is probable will be. checked, (9) yet it is in the country that improvements, as generally called, have chiefly originated (see note below) though very likely the offspring of ceffity more than choice, or from the low price country work in general is rated at; they have however, from the modes of pursuing them, ruined, or helped to ruin many; though perhaps a few who act with foresight and on some plan, are profitting by them; (10) for instance, the greatest house of all (Livesy's and Co) where every thing that was deemed an improvement was put in practice, and where labour was had at the lowest price, has, to appearance, irretrievably failed; (11) while its great and avowed rival seems (see however what is said further on) to have hitherto profitted by adopting similar modes; and by attending to quality as well as quantity, it has in some cases exhibited respectable work; but without a compliment to the Principal, his labour, attention, investigation and systematical arrangement of the business, as well as his conception of trade in general, must have been very great to reach the height to which he is now arrived; and, judging by what has happened, unless vague politics now distract his attention, (12) he is the man of resolution and enterprize, whom other Printers (a very few excepted) have either to fear or emulate.

But, while praise is bestowed where merited, it is here freely said, may those practices just spoken of, (too notorious to need specifying,) be ever stigmatized, discountenanced, and reprobated, as they must eternally blacken the character of the practiser of them, in the eyes of those who have a regard for the present and future respectability of the business, or the protection and reward that genius, and a spirited exertion to maintain that respectability, has a right, not only to expect but to demand. (13)

To regard to the business itself, it may be intimated, as a further attempt to reduce the whole of what has been said in both parts of this work, as much as possible into a contracted view (for it seems impossible to bring it absolutely to a point) that in the establishment and management of it, it is naturally divisible into three distinct parts, Firstly, The inventive and mechanical, as treated of in the first part of this work: - Secondly, The chemical and philosophical, as discussed in this second part: and Thirdly, (what has not come within the plan of this treatise) the trading and commercial, or, in printing for Drapers, the home accounts and town business; thus, pursuing the same mode as in the Retrospect of bleaching and copper-work, if a train or connection of all the operations in the business could be for med, it is presumed it would be something like what follows; for the necessary distinction above made, prevents a regular chain of process; one part being to prepare utensils for conveying colour to the cloth, while the other is preparing the cloth to receive the colour; though afterwards, the processes go on in a single series.

One division therefore undoubtedly compre hends, with their subordinate considerations,* (* It cannot be enforced too much, that every consideration includes that of what will be the effect at last.) those of

1. Drawings, or Patterns, which whether originals, imitations, or direct copies, the principle consists in adapting them to certain markets.

2. Putting-on, or transferring them to blocks, plates, cylinders, &c. requiring as its principle, an even face, and joining, or such management, that in the end the effect of the pattern is obtained: In this department is in cluded the management of blocks.

3. Cutting (comprizing pinning, &c.) on the principle of a found bottom and clear face.

4. Engraving, requiring distinction in the strokes, and depth combined with strength and neatness.

The other division comprizes, with the usual or occasional intermediate operations of branning, dunging, washing, pencilling, after grounding, &c. the considerations of

1. Steeping the Cloth, or removing dirt or certain flight stains.

2. Ashing, or removing brownness, grease, &c.

3. Souring, (sometimes alone sufficient) or removing grease, iron-moulds, stains, &c. the principle of which, as well as of ashing, being; to open and enlarge the pores of the cloth, that it may properly imbibe the astringent and colouring particles.

4. Calendering (including stretching, occasionally stiffening, stowing, &c.) requiring an attention chiefly to keep the woof, and shoot an square as possible.

Here the division of processes cease, coalescing in the operation of

PRINTING, the principle of which, whether with blocks, plates, cylinders, &c. is properly furnishing them, and regularly impressing the colour into the cloth.**** As to colour-making, it cannot be brought into either of these trains of processes, it standing by itself in providing those agents applied to the cloth by printing, for procuring the colour, assisted by the two distinct preparatory trains of processes just exhihited.

After this junction, the considerations then are

1st. Slowing, or drying or keeping the cloth in a dry state, that the saline particles in the colour may not be dispersed, or as the phrase is, that the colour does not run. — See note 34 to colour-making.

2. Clearing, or removing the sightning and thickning, so that as little else as possible, besides the astringents be left in the cloth.

3. Maddering, wilding, &c. or using certain substances, on the principle of their colouring particles being attracted and retained by the astringents already in the cloth, as applied by printing.

4. Fielding, or displacing the superfluous particles of colour, by laying down, planking, &c. on the principle, that certain effects are procured by friction, pressure, evaporation, &c.

As to the mode of managing the business, it would be absurd and highly presumptuous in the writer, to advance any thing particular for seasons repeatedly given, except that to conduct it properly, requires an understanding beyond what is conceived as a common one, or even one acquired merely by experience; for leaving it to superintendants is always attended with more or less inconvenience; and servants, who make their employers interests their own, or even able to advise with, are rarely to be met with; but generally speaking, it may be said, whether in the commencement or prosecution of it, resources or connections to supply work, and conveniences to execute it, are equally of the first concern; next to those, as far as such a complicated business will permit, is forming an estimate of certain expences, in the price of drugs, labour, and utensils, as well as the probable profit; which includes the knowledge of the nature and value of drawing, cutting, &c: whatever else is necessary to be considered in respect to theory, system, &c. is so often spoken of, that it must be needless dwelling oh it here; it is however earnestly again recommended to be thought of (see note 7 to copper-work, and note 51 to colour-making) that from the complicatory nature of callico-printing, and the difficulties attending the prosecution of the various requisite processes, (which a flight survey even of this tract will evince) it must be folly superlative for any person rashly to enter into it (14) on an idea he can in a year or two, acquire a proper knowledge of it; as to those who are in it, it has been repeatedly intimated they should turn their thoughts towards its principles, the parts that compose it, and the relation they bear to each other, (see note 28 to copper-work, and note 1 of this retrospect) for merely knowing whether work is done well or not, may be sufficient for a Draper, or Salesman, but a Callico-Printer ought to know why work badly done is so, and consequently, how it should be done otherwise.

Similar now to what is said at the end of the first part ot this treatise (there necessarily placed, and chiefly applicable to practice, and what could be partly reduced to rule) are annexed here, a few positions gathered from the substance of the second part, as more applicable to theory, or those principles, without which, practice must ever be uncertain in its operation, or incomplete in iis effects; therefore, be it well remembered, that

THEORY is the basis of PRACTICE.





And, as in the positions at the end of the first part it ds said, EXPEDITION without PRECIPITANCY is the ESSENTIAL SPIRIT OF BUSINESS, so here it is said, that

CERTAINTY OF EFFECT in any process is the MATERIAL OBJECT, the ULTIMATE POINT, or the GRAND DESIDERATUM to be, if possible, obtained.

Hence, for the last time, it is observed, that in pursuit of this MATERIAL OBJECT, and, in order to it, to procure a familiary with causes and effects, the springs of operation should be discovered, the channels traced which flow from them, these channels re-traced to their springs, and the various connections considered as intently as possible; thus from the consequences of thinking as well as acting, a capability of looking through every stage of process to the last will necessarily follow, the general cry of the difficulty of managing the business be partly removed, and a greater CERTAINTY of EFFECT be obtained, with its consequent appendages of profit and credit, as well as of mental satisfaction, (15) and the writer will go so far as to say, that under such circumstances, from the nature of many of the processes, in which fancy, taste, arts and science, lend their influence and powers, it would (extravagant as all this may seem to the mere drudge) be to an active and penetrative mind, a perpetual source of rational exercise; and supply an extensive fund for philosophical investigation, and intellectual enjoyment. But, he must go further, and say, that until men of this complexion, able to render that a pleasure, which to others, however profitable, is perplexing and burthensome, are more engaged in it, than now are; little may be expected beyond its pre sent confined powers of execution, and relative degrees of effect.

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