The Anthropological Review. Vol. 1.
London, Tråubner & co., 60, Paternoster Row. 1863
By Professor Antonio Raimondy of Lima.
Translated from the Spanish by Wm. Bollaert, F.A.S.L., Corr. Mem. Univ. Chile and Ethno. Soc. of London and New York.
The Indians inhabiting the banks of river Huallaga, in the districts of Tingo Maria and Pachiza, belong to two nations reduced in 1676, known under the names of Cholones and Hibitos, having their own languages.
A great portion of these people are only Christians in as far as they have been baptised. [---] They paint their faces and bodies with the fruit of huito or jagua (genipa oblongifolia), and with the achote (bixia orellana), and scarcely cultivate the most necessary plants for their maintenance. They now wear a shirt and short trowsers, of a cotton cloth, dyed blue with a species of wild indigo.
The inhabitants of Iquitos, Pebas, and Loreto, are a mixture of baptised and wild Indians, belonging to tribes, as the Iquitos, Pebas, Yaguas, Orejones, Ticunas, and Mayorunas. The baptized ones cover the lower portion of the body, but the wild ones go nearly naked. They ornament the face with red and black stripes, and use lances and poisoned arrows.
The name of Chontaquiros given to the Piros of the forests of Cuzco is in consequence of the custom they have of dyeing their teeth with a root, which gives them a black colour, - the chonta, black wood, and quiros, tooth. The Setebos, Sipibos, and Conibus blacken their teeth with chonta also.
The Piros speaks a different language to the other wild tribes of the Ucayali, and they are at once known by their using a blackish cusma.
The Remos are distinguished from all the others, instead of painting the face with achote, or with huito, they tatoo themselves by picking the skin with a spine, and introducing the smoke from the copal resin.
There are cultivated pine-apples (Broelia ananas), wighing eighteen pounds, ajii, (Capsicum), kidney beans (Phaseolus), and the achote (Bixia Orellana), which is used to colour some of the dishes of food; to say nothing of the spontaneous vegetation of Heliconius, Alpinius, Marantas, Justicius, Costus, - plants that may be reared in European gardens. Of medicinal plants: the Ipecacuana; the Esychotria, affording yellow dyes; the useful Yarina (Phytelephas macrocarpa) or vegetable ivory; the barbasco (Jaquinia armillaris), the root of this is used for intoxicating the fish in the rivers, and thus taking them with greater facility; simalax of various sorts; the huaco (Mikania), used against the bites of serpents: the sanango (Tablermontana, S.), used in rheumatism, so common in these humid regions; vanilla; cocculus; strychnias (from the last the Ticunas of the Amazons prepare the poison).
The odorous pucheri (Neitandria P.), the fruit of which is used in dysentry; the quina-quina, yielding the balsam of Peru; copiba; chinchonas; matico (Arante olongata), to cure wounds; the wax palm; mahogany; cedar; balsa wood (Ochroma piscatoria), and very many others. The llanchma tree yields a stuff used for bedding; the tacuari gives a think bark, used in lieu of paper for cigars; the huimba (a Bombax); the vitu of Jagua (Ginipa oblogifolia); the fruit yields a blue colour, used as a paint, and for protecting their bodies from the mosquitos; the setica (Cecropia pellata) in the hollow trunk of which lives a bee that produces wax and honey, the caucho jebe, or India-rubber plant (Siphonia elastiva), &c., &c.; Then the great family of Palms, and beautiful floweing plants without number.