A History of Inventions and Discoveries.
By John Beckmann,
Public professor of economy in the University of Gottingen.
Translated from the German, by William Johnston.
Third edition, carefully corrected, enlarged by the addition of several new articles.
In four volumes.
Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Priestley; R. Scholey; T. Hamilton; W. Otridge; J. Walker; R. Fenner; J. Bell; J. Booker; E. Edwards; and J. Harding.
* Gattereri Elementa artis diplomaticæ. Goettingæ 1765, 4to. p. 283.
*2 It is singular that Pliny denies that the Egyptians used seals: Non signat Oriens aut Ægyptus etiam nunc, litteris contenta solis. Lib. xxxiii. c. 1. Herodotus however, and others, prove the contrary; and Moses speaks of the seal-rings of the Egyptians. See Goguet.
*3 -- Herodot. lib. ii. c.38. edit. Francofurti 1608, fol.
*4 -- Lucian. in Peudomant.
*5 - - Act. iv. ap. Bin. tom. iii. Colcin. part. i.p. 356. Whether the ---- , however, of Herodotus and the ---- of Lucian and of the Byzantine be the same kind of earth, can be determined with as little certainty as whether the creta, called by some Roman authors a sealing-earth, be different from both. Writers on diplomatics mention, besides metals, five other substances on which impressions were made, or with which letters and public acts were sealed, viz. terra sigillaris, cement, paste, common wax, and sealing-wax.* The terra sigillaris was used by the Egyptians, and appears to have been the first substance employed for sealing.*2 The Egyptian priests bound to the horns of the cattle fit for sacrifice a piece of paper; stuck upon it some sealing-earth, on which they made an impression with their seal; and such cattle only could be offered up as victims. *3
Lucian speaks of a fortune-teller who ordered those who came to consult him to write down on a bit of paper the questions they wished to ask, to fold it up, and to seal it with clay, or any other substance of the like kind. *4 Such earth seems to have been employed in sealing by the Byzantine emperors; for we are told, that at the second council of Nice, a certain person defended the worship of images by saying, no one believed that those who received written orders from the emperor, and venerated the seal, worshipped on that account the sealing-earth, the paper, or the lead. *5
* Cum Valentino ejus interpreti epistola Agrigento allata esset, casu signum iste animadvertit in cretula; placuit ei; exquisivit unde esset epistola; respondit, Agrigento: iste litteras ad quos solebat, misit, ut is annulus ad se primo quoque tempore afferretur. Ita litteris istius patrifamilias, L. Titio cuidam, civi Romano, annulus de digito detractus est. Orat. in Verrem, iv. c. 9.
In the above passage, some instead of cretula read cerula. I shall here take occasion to remark, also, that in the Acts of the Council of Nice before mentioned, instead of --- some read ---: but I do not see a sufficient reason for this alteration, as in the before-quoted passage of Lucian it is expressly said, that people sealed ----. Reiske himself, who proposes that amendment, says that --- may be retained. Stephen, however, does not give that meaning to this word in his Lexicon. Pollux and Hesychius tell us, that the Athenians called sealing-earth also ----. The former, Onomast. x. 14. 59, says, Non ignorandum, quod ceram sgnando idoneam, -------, veteres --- nominaverunt et ----, ut in Lysistrate Aristophanes: et nihil ita bene conclusum esse, quin onsignations, ---, avellatis: and the latter, ------: Attici --- vocant ceram cujus ad sigilla usus est. Stephen says, in his Lexicon, vol. iii. p. 727, that rhypos, in this sense, occurs in Cicero's Letters to Atticus: In v. l. annotatur, legi et apud Cic. in ep. ad Att rhypos pro ceris sive formis under sigilla fiebant, fortase a situ vetustatis. But thought Coelius Rhodiginus mentions the same thing, Lection. Antiq. xxi. 23, in the following words, Pro caeris quoque in epistolis ad Atticum legimus rhypos, de vetustatis ratione nomenclatura accersita; that expression is not to be found, at present, in Cicero.
*2 Hæc quæ a nobis prolata laudatio, obsignata erat creta illa Asiatica, quæ fere est omnibus nota nobis, qua utuntur omnes non modo in publicis, sed etiam in privatis litteris, quas quotidie videmus mitti a publicanis, sæpe unicuique nostrum. Neque enim testis ipse, signo inspecto, fasum nos proferre dixit; sed leviatem totius Asiæ protulit, de qua nos et libenter et facile concedimus. Nostra igitur laudatio - - - consignata creta est; in illo autem testimonio, quod accusatori dicitur datum, ceram esse videmus. - Orat. pro Flacco, c. 16.
*3 Sibyllam Apollo pio more dilexit, et ei obtulit poscendi quod vellet arbitrium. Illa hausit arenam manibus, et tam longam vitam poposcit. Cui Apollo respondit, id fieri posse, si Erythræam, in qua habitabat, insulam relinquerent, et eam nunquam videret. Profecta igitur, Cumas tenuit; et illic defecta corporis viribus vitam in sola voce retinuit. Quod cum cived ejus cognovissent, sive invidia sive commiseratione commmoti, ei epistolam miserunt creta antiquo more signatam; qua visa, quia erat de ejus insula, in mortem soluta est. Serv. ad lib. vi. Æneid. p. 1037. Cicero relates, that Verres having seen in the hands of one of his servants, a letter written to him from Agrigentum, and having observed on it an impression in sealing-earth (cretula) he was so pleased with it that he caused the seal-ring with which it was made to be taken from the possessor.* The same orator, in his defence of Flaccus, produced an attestation sent from Asia, and proved its authenticity by its being sealed with Asiatic sealing-earth; with which, said he to the auditors, as you daily see, all public and private letters in Asia are sealed: and he showed, on the other hand, that the testimony brought by the accuser was false, because it was sealed with wax, and for that reason could not have come from Asia. *2 The scholiast Servius relates, that a sibyl received a promise from Apollo, that he should live as long as she did not see the earth of the island Erythræa where she resided; that she therefore quitted the place, and retired to Cumæ, where she became old and decrepid; but that having received a letter sealed with Erythræan earth (creta), when she saw the seal she instantly expired. *3
* Ex ea creta qua fiunt amphoræ, lata vass in modum patina rum fieri jubebat. Lib. xii. c. 43.
*2 Et creta solidanda tenaci. Georg. i. v. 179.
*3 Creta fossica, qua stereorantur agri. Varro, i. 7, 8. - It appears also, that the --- of the Greeks signified a kind of potters-earth. Those who do not choose to rely on our dictionaries, need only to read the ancient Greek writers on husbandry, who speak of -----. See Geopon. x. c. 75. 12, and ix. c. 10. 4. That many kinds of sealing-earth, without being burnt, will long retain an impression, is proved by the sealed-earths preserved in our apothecaries' shops, and collections of natural history.No one, however, will suppose that this earth was the same as that to which we at present give the name of creta, chalk; for if it was a natural earth it must have been of that kind called pottersclay, as that clay is capable of receiving an impression and of retaining it after it is hardened by drying. That the Romans, under the indefinite name of creta, often understood a kind of pottersearth can be proved by many passages of their writers. Columella speaks of a kind of chalk of which win-jars and dishes were made.* Virgil calls it tough;*2 and the ancient writers on agriculture give the same name to marl which was employed to manure land.*3 Notwithstanding all these authorities, I do not clearly comprehend how letters could be sealed with potters-clay, as it does not adhere with sufficient force either to linen, of which, in ancient times, the covers of letters were made, or to parchment; as it must be laid on very thick to have a distinct impression; as it is long in drying, and is again easily softened by moisture; and, at any rate, if conveyed by post at present, it would be crumbled to dust in going only from Hamburg to Altona. I can readily believe that the Roman messengers employed more skill and attention to preserve the letters committed to their care than are employed by our postmen; but the distance from Asia to Rome is much greater than that from Hamburg to Altona.
* I piombi antichi, opera di Francesco de Ficoroni. In Roma 1740, 4to. p. 16. sigilli de creta, tanto più curiosi, quanto più rari.*2 Heineccius and others think that the amphore vitraæ diligenter gypsatæ, in Potronius, were sealed; but it is much more probable that they were only daubed over or closed with gypsum, for the same reason that we pitch out casks But may there not be as little foundation for the ancient expression creta Asiatica, Asiatic earth, as for the modern expression, cera Hispanica, Spanish wax? May not the former have signified a kind of coarse artificial cement? These questions might be answered by those who have had an opportunity of examining, or only seeing, the sigilla cretacea in collections of antiquities. We are assured that such are still preserved; at least we find in Ficoroni* the representation of six impressions which, as he tells us, consisted of that earth. In that author, however, I find nothing to clear up my doubts; he says only that some of these seals were white; others of a gray colour, like ashes; others red, and others brown. They seem all to have been enclosed in leaden cases. Could it be proved that each letter was wrapped round with a thread, and that the thread, as in the seals affixed to diplomas, was drawn through the covering of the seal, the difficulty which I think occurs in the use of these earths, as mentioned by the ancients, would entirely disappear.*2 It seems to me remarkable that neither Theophrastus nor Pliny says any thing of the Asiatic creta, or speaks at all of sealing-earth; though they have carefully enumerated all those kinds of earth which are worth notice on account of any use.
In Europe, as far as I know, wax has been every where used for sealing since the earliest ages. Writers on diplomatics, however, are not agreed whether yellow or white wax was first employed; but it appears that the former, on account of its low price, must have been first and principally used, at least by private persons. It is probable, also, that the seals of diplomas were more durable when they consisted of yellow wax; for it is certain that white wax, which loses a great part of its inflammable substance, is more brittle, and much less durable. Many seals also may at present be considered white which were at first yellow; for not only does wax highly bleached resume, in time, a dirty yellow colour, but yellow wax also, in the course of years, loses so much of its colour as to become almost like white wax. This perhaps may account for the oldest seals appearing to be of white, and the more modern of yellow wax. These, however, are conjectures which I submit, with deference, to the determination of those versed in diplomatics.
In the course of time, sealing-wax was coloured red; and a good deal later, at least in Germany, but not before the fourteenth century, it was coloured green, and sometimes black. I find it remarked that blue wax never appears on diplomas; and I may, indeed, say it is impossible it should appear, for the art of giving a blue colour to wax has never yet been discovered; and in old books, such as that of Wecker, we find no receipt for that purpose. Later authors have pretended to give directions how to communicate that colour to wax: but they are altogether false; for vegetable dyes, when united with wax, become greenish, so that the wax almost resembles the hip-stone; and earthy colours do not combine with it, but, in melting, fall again to the bottom. A seal of blue wax, not coloured blue merely on the outer surface, would be as great a rarity in the arts as in diplomatics, and would afford matter of speculation for our chemists; but I can give them no hopes that such a thing can ever be produced.
* Ceruleæ ceræ licet nullus fere usus sit, refert tamen Diether ad Besold, voce wax, Carolum V Imp. doctori Stockhamero Norimbergense anno 1524 privilegium tali cera utendi dedisse. J. M. Heineccii Syntagma de veteribus sigilis. Francof. et Lips. 1719, fol. p. 55.
*2 Farina qua chartæ glutinantur. Plin. lib. xxii. c. 25.
*3 Trotz, Not. in prim. schribendi origine, p. 73, 74. The emperor Charles V in the year 1524 granted to Dr. Stockamar, of Nuremberg, the privilege of using blue wax in seals: a favour like that conferred, in 1704, on the manufactories in the principality of Halberstadt and the county of Reinstein, to make indigo from minerals. It was, certainly, as difficult for the doctor to find blue wax for seals, as for the proprietors of these manufactories to discover indigo in the earth.*
Much later are impressions made on paste or dough, which perhaps could not be employed on the ancient parchment or the linen covers of letters, though in Pliny's time the paper then in use was joined together with flour paste.*2 Proper diplomas were never sealed with wafers; and in the matchless diplomatic collection of H. Gatterer there are no wafer seals much above two hundred years old. From that collection I have now in my possession one of these seals, around the impression of which is the following inscription, Secretum civium in Ulma , 1474; but it is only a new copy of a very old impression. Kings, however, before the invention of sealing-wax, were accustomed to seal their letters with this paste.*3
* Maltha dicitur a Græcis pix cum cera mixta. Festi et Flacci de verb. sig.. lib. xx. edit. Dacerii, Lut. Par. 1681, 4to. p. 224. Hesychius calls this cement - Pallad. lib. i. c. 17. Plin. lib. xxxvi. c. 24.
*2 Lib. viii. e. 4.
*3 Nouveau traité de diplomatique, par deux Religieux Bénedictins. Paris 1758, 4to. iv. p. 33.
*4 Mémoires concernant l'histoire d'Auxerre, par Lebeuf. Paris 1743, ii. p. 517.
*5 Bibliotheque des auteurs de Bourgogne, par l'abbé Papillon. Dijon 1745, 2 vol. fol. ii. p. 217.
*6 Histoire générale des drogues, par le Sieur Pomet. Paris 1735, 2 vol. 4to. ii. p. 44. i. p. 28. Heineccius and others relate that maltha also was employed for seals. This word signifies a kind of cement, formed chiefly of inflammable substances, and used to make reservois, pipes, &c. watertight. Directions how to prepare it may be found in the writers on agriculture, Pliny, Festus, and others. The latter tells how to make it on a composition of pitch and wax:* but neither in that author nor in any other have I found proofs that letters were sealed with it, or that seals of it were affixed to diplomas; for the words of Pollux cera qua tabella judicium obliniebatur,*2 will admit of a different explanation. If maltha has been, in reality, used for seals, that mixture may be considered as the first or oldest sealing-wax, as what of it is still preserved has been composed of resinous substances.
Some writers*3 assert, upon the authority of Lebeuf*4, the sealing-wax was invented about the year 1640, by a Frenchman named Rousseau; but that author refers his readers to Papillon, *5 who refers again to Pomet, *6 so that the last appears to be the first person who broached that opinion.
* This Rousseau appears also in the History of cochineal, as he sent to Pomet a paper on that subject, which was contradicted by the well-known Plumier, in the Journal des Sccedil;avans for 1694. He is mentioned laso by Labat, who says he saw him at Rochelle; but at that time he must have been nearly a hundred years of age.
*2 Mr. Ven Murr, in his learned Beschreibung der merkwürdigkeiten in Nürnberg, Nurnb. 1778, 8vo. p. 702, says, that Spanish wax was not invented, or at least not known, before the year 1559. This appears also from a manuscript of the same year, which contains various receipts in the arts and medicine. There are some in it for making the common white sealing-wax green or red.
*3 Quod si in sigillo antiquiori prætenseo reperiatur adhuc sua ceræ pinguedo, magnaque hinc ejusdem vel aliqualis saltem mollities et tractabilitas; signum est sigillum tale partum esse supposititium ævisequioris. Pari quoque ratione, si pars sigilli posterior, qua diplomati annexum antiquitus sigillum exitit, simile vel pinguedinis vei mollitici et tractabilitis signum præ se ferat, cum facies anterior teliquas habet genuinæ ætatis antiquitatisque suæ notas et characteres: dubium vix remanet, sigillum ex antiquiori diplomate desumptum, et a manu recentiori sigillo alteri annexum fuisse. Chronic. Godvic. p. 102.
*4 Wecker gives directions also to make an impression with calcined gypsum, and a solution of gum or isinglass. Porta knew that this could be done to greater perfection with amalgam of quicksilver; an art employed even at present.
*5 Tavernier, in his Travels, says, that in Surat gum lac is melted, and formed into sticks like sealing-wax. Compare with this Doppers Aria oder Ausfürliche beschreibumng, &c . Nuremberg, 1681, fol. p. 237. According to his account Francis Rousseau, born not far from Auxerres; who travelled a long time in Persia, Pegu, and other parts of the East Indies; and who in 1692 resided in St. Domingo, was the inventor of sealing-wax. Having , while he lived at Paris as a merchant, during the latter years of the reign of Louis XIII, who died in 1643, lost all his property by a fire, he bethought himself of preparing sealing-wax from gum lac, as he had seen it prepared in India, in order to maintain his wife and five children. A lady, of the name of Longueville, made this wax known at court, and caused Louis XIII to use it; after which it was purchases and used throughout all Paris. By this article Rousseau, before the expiration of a year, gained 50,000 livres. It acquired the name of cire d'Espagne, Spanish wax, because at that time a kind of gum lac, which was only once melted, and coloured a little red, was called Portugal wax, cire de Portugal.*
The sealing-wax was either very little or not at all known in Germany, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, may be concluded from its not being mentioned either by Porta or Wecker; though in the works of both these authors there are various receipts respecting common wax, and little-known methods of writing and sealing.*2 The former says, that to open letters, in such a manner as not to be perceived the wax seal must be heated a little, and must be then carefully separated from the letter by a horse's hair; and when the letter has been read and folded up, the seal must be again dexterously fastened to it. This manoeuvre, as the writers on diplomatics remark, has been often made use of to forge public acts; and they have, therefore, given directions how to discover such frauds.*3 The above method of opening letters, however, can be applied only to common wax, and not to sealing-wax; had the latter been used in Wecker's time, he would have mentioned this limitation. *4
Whether sealing-wax was used earlier in the East Indies than in Europe, as the French think, I cannot with certainty determine. Tavernier, *5 however, seems to say that the gum lac produced in the kingdom of Asem is employed there not only for lackering, but also for making Spanish sealing-wax. I must confess also that I do not know whether the Turks and other eastern nations use it, in general. In the collection of natural curiosities belonging to our university, there are two sticks of sealing-wax which professor Butner procured from Constantinople, under the name of Turkish wax. They are angular, bent like a bow, are neither stamped nor glazed, and are of a dark but pure red colour. Two other sticks which came from the East Indies are straight, glazed, made somewhat thin at both ends, have no stamp, and are of a dark and dirtier red colour. All these four sticks seem to be lighter than ours, and I receive that by rubbing they do not acquire soon, nor so strong, an electrical quality as out German wax of moderate fineness. But whether the first were made in Turkey and the latter in the East Indies; or whether the whole four were made in Europe, is not known. That sealing-wax, however, was made and used in Germany a hundred years before Rousseau's time, and that the merit of that Frenchman consisted, probably, only in this, that he first made it in France, or made the first good wax, will appear in the course of what follows.
* Bruchstücke betreffend die beobachtung der pflichten eines staatsdieners; aus den handlungen des Raths Dreitzz, nebst bemerkungen von ältesten gebrauche des Spanischen siegelwachses - Frankfort on the Mayne 1785, 4to. p. 86; where the use of these antiquarian researches is illustrated by examples worthy of notice.
*2 Historische untersuchungen gesamlet von J. G. Meusel, i. 3. p. 240.
*3 Original letters written during the reign of Henry VI. London 1787, 2 vol. 4to. i. p. xxi. and p. 87 and 92. The oldest known seal of our common sealing-wax is that found by Mr. Roos, on a letter written from London, Aug. 3d, 1554, to the rheingrave Philip Francis von Daun, by his agent in England, Gerrard Herman* The colour of the wax is a dark red; it is very shining, and the impression bears the initials of the writer's name G. H. The next seal, in the order of time, is one of the year 1561, on a letter written to the council of Breslau. This letter was found among the ancient records of Gorlitz by Dr. Anton, and is three times sealed with beautiful red wax. *2 Among the archives of the before-mentioned family Mr. Roos found two other letters of the year 1566, both addressed to the rheingrave Frederick von Daun, from Orchamp in Picardy, by his steward Charles de Pousol; the one dated September the 2d, and the other September the 7th. Another letter, written by the same person to the same rheingrave, but dated Paris January 22d, 1567, is likewise sealed with red wax, which is of a higher colour, and appears to be of a coarser quality. As the oldest seals of this kind came from France and England, Mr. Roos conjectures that the invention, as the name seems to indicate, belongs to the Spaniards. This conjecture appears to me, however, improbable, especially as sealing-wax was used at Breslau so early as 1561; but this matter can be best determined, perhaps, by the Spanish literati. It is much to be lamented that John Fen, in his Original letters of the last half of the fifteenth century, *3 when he gives an account of the size and shape of the seals, does not inform us of what substances they are composed. Respecting a letter of the year 1455 he says, only, "The seal is of red wax;" by which is to be understood, undoubtedly, common wax.
* Des Geschichtforscher, published by Meusel. Halle. 8vo. vi. p. 270.
*2 Des Geschichtforscher, iv. p. 231.
*3 Ibid. Among the records of the landgraviate of Cassel, Mr. Ledderhose found two letters of count Louis of Nassau to the landgrave Wiliam IV, one of which, dated March the 3d, 1563, is sealed with red wax, ant the other, dated November 7th, the same year, is sealed with black wax. * MR. Neuberger, private keeper of the archives at Weymar, found among the records of that duchy a letter sealed with red wax, and written at Paris, May the 15th, 1571, by a French nobleman name Vulcob, who the year before had been ambassador from the king of France to the court of Weymar. It is worthy of remark, that the same person had sealed nine letters of a prior date with common wax, and that the tenth is sealed with Spanish wax.. *2 Mr. P. L. Spiess, principal keeper of the records at Plessenburg, who gave rise to this research by this queries, saw a letter of the year 1574 sealed with red sealing-wax, and another of the year 1620 sealed with black sealing-wax. He found also in an old expense-book, of 1616, that Spanish wax, expressly, and other materials for writing were ordered from a manufacturer of sealing-wax at Nuremberg, for the personal use of Christian margrave of Brandenburg.
*Halleri Bibliotheca botan. i. p. 332. Aromatum et simplicum aliquot historia, Garcia ab Horto auctore. Antverpiæ 1574m 8vo. p. 33. Ex ea bacilli illi, quibus in obsignandis epistolis utimur, conficiuntur.
*2 The whole title is: New Titularbuch, - sambt etlichen hinzugethanen gehaimnüssen und künsten, das lesen und die schreiberey betreffendt. Durch Samuelen Zimmerman, burger zu Augspurg, 4to, 1579, p. 112. The oldest mention of sealing-wax which I have hitherto observed in printed books, is in the well known work of Garcia ab Orto,* where the author remarks, speaking of gum lac, that those sticks used for sealing letters were made of it. This book was first printed in 1563, about which time it appears that the use of sealing-wax was very common among the Portuguese.
The oldest printed receipt for making sealing-wax was found by Mr. von Murr, in a work by Samuel Zimmerman, citizen of Augsburg, printed in 1579.*2 The copy which I have from the library of our university is signed at the end by the author himself. His receipts for making red and green sealing-wax I shall here transcribe.
To make hard sealing-wax, called Spanish wax, with which if letters be sealed they cannot be opened without breaking the seal: Take beautiful clear resin, the whitest you can procure, and melt it over a slow coal fire. When it is properly melted, take it from the fire, and for every pounds of resin add two ounces of cinnabar pounded very fine, stirring it about. Then let the whole cool, or pour it into cold water. Thus you will have beautiful red sealing-wax.
If you are desirous of having black wax, add lamp black to it. With smalt or azure you may make it blue; with white-lead white, and with orpiment yellow.
IF instead of resin you melt purified turpentine, in a glass vessel, and give it any colour you choose, you will have a harder kind of sealing-wax, and not so brittle as the former.
What appears to me worthy of remark in these receipts for sealing-wax is, that there is no mention in them of gum lac, which, at present, is the principal ingredient, at least in that of the best quality; and that Zimmerman's sealing-wax approaches very near to that which, in diplomatics, is called mathla. One may almost conclude, therefore, that this invention was not brought from the East Indies.
The expression Spanish wax is of little more import than the words Spanish-green, Spanish-flies, Spanish-grass, Spanish-reed, and several others, as it was formerly customary to give to all new things, particularly those which excited wonder, the appellation of Spanish; and, in the like manner, many of foreign or new articles have been called Turkish; such as Turkish wheat, Turkish paper, &c.
* Archivische nebenarbeiten un nachrichted, geliefert von Phil. Ernest Spiess. Halle 1785, 4to. ii. p.3. Respecting the antiquity of wafers, Mr. Spiess has made an observation, * which may lead to further researches, that the oldest seal with a red wafer, he has ever yet found, is on a letter written by D. Krapf, at Spires, in the year 1624, to the government at Bayreuth. Me. Spiess has found also, that some years after Forstenhäusser, the Brandenburg factor at Nuremberg, sent such wafers to a bailiff at Osterbohe. It appears, however, that wafers were not used during the whole of the seventeenth century, in the chancery of Brandenburg, but only by private persons, and by these even seldom; because, as Spiess says, people were fonder of Spanish wax. The first wafers with which the chancery of Bayreuth began to make seals were, according to an expense account of the year 1705, sent from Nuremberg. The use of wax, however, was still continued; and among the Plassenburg archives there is a descript of 1722, sealed with proper wax. The use of wax must have been continued longer in the duchy of Weymar; for in the Electa juris publici there is an order of the year 1716, by which the introduct8ion of wafers in law matters is forbidden, and the use to wax commanded. This order, however, was abolished by duke Ernest Augustus in 1742, and wafers again introduced.